12/25/2009

iPhone Sound Meters


Sound Meters
  • Sonic Scan $0.99, rate:3.0 -- Displays sound pressure level [decibel] and frequency [Hertz] of sound in your environment. Features: Graph Sound Level, Frequency == Zero Crossings.
  • Digital Sound Meter $0.99, rate:2.5 -- Display of the average and peak levels with a bargraph and with a numeric LCD display.
  • dBMeter Pro $2.99, rate:3.0 -- General This application can be used to measure ambient noise in Decibels.
    Features: Graph, Meter, eMail Results.

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12/23/2009

Knowledge Space

It seems to me that it is convenient to categorize human knowledge in a 2-d space rather than along a 1-d line or a 0-d choice, This is inspired by Rumsfield quote:

  • "There are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we now know we don’t know. But there are also unknown unknowns. These are things we do not know we don’t know."
The two dimentions that I see are the the Quality of the Theories and the Quality of the Results.

  • Known, Knowns -- Example: Classical Physics -- The theory is clear and it leads to exact fully reproducible predictions.
  • Knows, UnKnows -- Example: Evolution -- The theory is clear but leads to statistical or trend predictions.
  • UnKnown, Knows -- Examples: Heurictics -- The theory is ad-hock but leads to tendencies.
  • UnKnown, UnKnowns -- Example: Religion -- The theory is disconnected from the real world and leads to no predictions.
On the other hand, others are moe comfortable with a 1-d classification or a 0-d Judgement.

  • 1-d -- a Theory, area of knowledge, is Generally righter or wronger.
  • 0-d -- a Theory ..., is either Right or Wrong.
Note: This is similar to the way the the Advocates for Self Goverment suggest that we catagorize political leanings. See: 10 question quiz.

iphone apps

There are a number of sites, (services) that allow one to get access to the applications for the iPhone/iTouch. This list started from the Winter 2010 issue of iPhoneLife magazine (Weekly Update Newsletter).

Apple Services
  • On iPhone, iPhoneLive app -- WEB Browser // Plus // Add to Home Screen (or Bookmarks)
  • On iPhone, iPhone genius -- App store, // Featured // Genius
  • Apps for Everything -- Once you discover the App Store, you’ll see how applications can make your iPhone do just about anything.
Web Sites
  • MacWorld Application Reviews: iPod touch & iPhone app reviews from our editors—and you!
  • Apptism -- Check out the current Top Paid iPhone Apps and Top Free iPhone Apps!
  • AppReview -- There are 123,438 total applications available from the Apple Store. AppReview has reviewed 37,633 (as of 12/22/2009).
  • 148 Apps -- In addition to the reviews and news, we keep track of what’s selling, what’s new and what prices are dropping in the iTunes App Store.
  • App Space -- an intelligent recommendation engine designed to find the apps relevant to you.
  • App Classics -- From the front page users can see the top app classics across all categories, or search deeper into individual categories through the drop down menu.
  • Info World -- interactive catalog of iPhone apps designed for businesses, professionals, and IT staff
Social sites

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12/06/2009

Free Enterprise theory

The conditions for a market/economy to be a Free Enterprise Economy that can be proven to be "Efficient" are:
  1. There are many competing suppliers (consumers) such that none of them can effectively individually, or do conspire to set prices in the market.
  2. There are no Economies of Scale, e.g. the Incremental cost of production does not decrease as the number produced increases. (I think that it must also be assumed that there are no Economies of Consumption e.g. that the value to the consumer for additional units consumed also does not increase as the number consumed increases [Q.1: Economies of Scale and interdependance])
If a market satisfies these conditions then it can be proven, the General Equiblirum Theory, that the market is efficient, as defined as follows, that (page 50):
  1. Market clearing prices exist, one for each product.
  2. Supply and Demand will be equal at these prices, i.e.,
  3. Resources will be fully used.
  4. Inputs will be used in the most productive way, e.g. there is no way to produce more by re-arranging the inputs, [Q.2: what is more]
  5. The result are Pareto-efficient, i.e. it is not possible to improve anyone's situation except by degrading another's (or by obtaining more researces) e.g. [Q.3: Pareto-Efficient:] (page 54)
Note 1: The term "Free Enterprise"
(markets) will often be used as a synonym for:
  • Competitive Economy
  • Lessez-faire
  • Capitalism

Note 2: I am not really sure what the exact assumptions for the Free enterprise system are. e.g. I don't see the mathemetical model.
  1. What is the original wealth of individuals? (if it matters)
  2. How do individual's wages get determined?
  3. How do individual's values get determined? (though this may be irrelevant)
  4. Re: 2, is is required that the Demand:Value curves are decreasing and Supply and Demand curves are all fixed and independant?

Note 3: Though it may be 'efficient'
there are a number of other possible problems:



Question:
  • Q.1: Economies of Scale and interdependance: Do the conclusions depend on there being no economies of scale for consumption, e.g. that the utility of consuming decreases as more is consumed, and does it depend on their being no cross value, e.g. that each product's worth or cost is independent of any other product. e.g. Gas is worth $2.00/gal whether or not one has a car?
  • Q.2: What is more: Is this 'more' as valued by the Quantity*Clearing_Price, or is this a Pareto more, e.g. No more except at the cost of Less?
  • Q.3: Pareto-Efficient: Is it even true that Pareto-efficiency exists based on the studies in Behavioral Economy that seem to indicate that increasing the Richness of the Wealthy, even if there is not reduction in the Poorer, decrease the happyness of the poorer.

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Economic Theorists

  • Adam Smith -FE- 1723-1790 (page 26): The Wealth of Nations - 1776
  • John Stuart Mill -FE - (page 33): Principals of Political Economy - 1848
  • Ludwig van Mises -FE- (page 29): Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis - 1922
  • John Maynard Kaynes -WE-: Theory of Money - 1930, General theory of Employment, Interest and Money - 1936
  • Friedrich Hayek -FE- (page 29): Prices and Production - 1931 (Recessions were a way of restoring the balance between savings and investment (page 38)) Economics and Knowledge - 1937 (market prices are primarly a way of collaring and communicating information) (page 14))
  • Joseph Schumpeter -FE-: Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy - 1942
Note:
  • -FE- A Free Enterpirse theorist
  • -WE- A Welfair theorist

  • LSE: London School of Economics

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Free Market Capitalism (def)

A Free market, Competitive economy, is one in which there are a number of suppliers, and consumers, each of which can not, does not, signifficantly set the price for the "thing".

  • Adam Smith (1776) - theorized that specialization lead to efficiency and that Free Markets could coordinate the supply of goods to allow specialization of function., thus raising living standards (page 28)
  • The theory was that Free Markets would lead to a price close to the cost of producting the products, Raw Materials, Labor, and Capital.
  • The purpose of Government was to provide for the National Defense, Ensure that Laws, contracts and property rights were properly enforced. e.g Laissez-faire, (but Smith also mentioned and somehow preventing swindles and speculative panics (page 35), erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public instutions(page 34))
  • The ultimate goal of an economic policy was maximizing a countries wealth, ... the gross domestic product. (page 31)

Note (Smith understood that:):
  • some Un-regulated markets are unstable, not self correcting.

  • some Public works and instutions would be beneficial.

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Market (def)


A Market is simply [a real or virtual set of 1] somewhere[s] [physical, virtual, or other conceptual 2] things are bought [traded 3] and sold. (page 26),
  • 1] Assumed, the somewhere can be also virtual and can consist of a set of interrelated single markets.

  • 2] Things can be generalized to other than physical objects such as intelectual property, songs, software...

  • 3] Similarly bought and sold can be generalized to situations where the more conventional "money" transfer is replaced by some "payment" in kind.

There are at least 3 different markets:
  1. Goods Market -- Note: one can perhaps subdivide this into Consumables, Investment, and Tools, and probably others depending on how the good is "used", e.g. for "pleasure"..., for future wealth, or to permit production.
  2. Labor Market -- Again this may be divided into the purpose of the labor to the buyer, e.g. is it for immediate consumption or for producing goods.
  3. Financial Market --

Notes:
  • 0: My comments are generally normal or italic text where as the original author's are BOLD.

  • 1: One can "narrow" a market to dealing with a specific product or set at a specific location..., but it is important to remember that since money is fungible and since products are shareable, conplementary, and competative, the Market, for example, for food corn in Chicago is effected by the markets in New York, for Sugar and for Ethenal.

From:
How Markets Fail: The Logic of Economic Calamities
~ John Cassidy 2009
  • [D]escribes the rising influence of what he calls utopian economics—thinking that is blind to how real people act and that denies the many ways an unregulated free market can produce disastrous unintended consequences. He then looks to the leading edge of economic theory, including behavioral economics, to offer a new understanding of the economy—one that casts aside the old assumption that people and firms make decisions purely on the basis of rational self-interest.


Also see:

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